Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Antisense oligonucleotides (AOs) have the potential to induce functional dystrophin protein expression via exon skipping by restoring in-frame transcripts in the majority of patients suffering from Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). AOs of morpholino phosphoroamidate (PMO) and 2'-O-methyl phosphorothioate RNA (2'Ome RNA) chemistry have been shown to restore dystrophin expression in skeletal muscle but not in heart, following high-dose systemic delivery in murine models of muscular dystrophy (mdx). Exploiting the cell transduction properties of two basic arginine-rich cell penetrating peptides, we demonstrate widespread systemic correction of dystrophin expression in body-wide muscles and cardiac tissue in adult dystrophic mdx mice, with a single low-dose injection of peptide-conjugated PMO AO. This approach was sufficient to restore uniform, high-level dystrophin protein expression in peripheral muscle and cardiac tissue, with robust sarcolemmal relocalization of the dystrophin-associated protein complex and functional improvement in muscle. Peptide-conjugated AOs therefore have significant potential for systemic correction of the DMD phenotype.

Original publication




Journal article


Hum Mol Genet

Publication Date





3909 - 3918


Animals, Cell Membrane Permeability, Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Dystrophin, Gene Expression Regulation, Heart Injuries, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Inbred mdx, Morpholines, Morpholinos, Muscle, Skeletal, Muscular Dystrophy, Animal, Oligonucleotides, Antisense, Peptides